"Total" safety education and training is a process that gives employees everything they need to know and do to achieve excellent performance. It starts with new employee selection and ends with the verification of sustained excellent performance. Total safety education and training should be a part of every employee's experience because it:
The benefits listed above emphasize the importance of conducting world-class safety education and training that ensures workers are properly selected and oriented, completely trained, evaluated, retrained when necessary, and always motivated be the best. Let's look at some important aspects of the process.
Click on the button to see the important elements and activities of Total Safety Education and Training.
Selection.It's important to properly select from a qualified pool of applicants. A well-planned application process will help select qualified employee and that will also improve employee retention.
Orientation. A safety orientation will educate new employees on the safety and health aspects of their jobs, and will help take the surprise out of first days on the job.
Training. Initial and continuing safety training, especially with new employees, must compensate for their lack of knowledge, skills, and abilities in the demanding work they must perform. Accidents can happen quickly at a worksite if roughnecks and others do not understand and have the proper attitudes about the procedures they must follow, and why they are necessary.
Retraining. Remaining aware of danger, as familiarity kills caution, requires constant retraining in a variety of ways in order to retain interest. Retraining should be conducted if it appears workers have adequate knowledge or skills to perform safely, or as needed to ensure that employees are able to perform their tasks in a safe manner.
Motivation. Worker motivation to work safely and to stay with the industry must come from the companies. The opportunity to be employed year around, developing pride in working for a good company, experiencing satisfaction with job conditions, knowing that the work is meaningful and being rewarded generously should lessen the movement of workers through the industry.
Evaluation. Total safety education and training is successful only after the employer can verify that employees are performing at or above the employer's standards. To achieve that, employees should be evaluated by competent persons.
When initially employed, a worker should receive instruction and training pertinent to the hazards, safety precautions, safe work practices, and use of personal protective equipment applicable to the type of work performed. The employer should require that the worker demonstrate adequate knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to safely operate the tool or equipment prior to using it in a drilling situation.
Click on the button to see the important elements of new employee initial safety orientation.
The instructions should adequately orient and alert the new employee to the following:
Click on the link to see a comprehensive list of OSHA training requirements.
The Safety Coordinator or other designated site safety person will appraise the skill and knowledge level of exposed workers, and provide any needed training.
If the worker changes jobs, he or she should once again demonstrate adequate knowledge and ability to correctly perform new procedures and operate any new tools or equipment involved with the procedure.
After inspecting a job site, a designated person should identify and evaluate all potential hazards that may cause serious injuries and increase the probability of an accident. Actions will be taken to minimize the hazards and protect the workers.
Where safety and health training is needed as a result of hazard identified on the worksite, be sure to develop training that at least does the following:
Toolbox Talks: Short toolbox talks (also called tailgate meetings) in which employees gather around informally should be conducted regularly (daily or weekly). Virtually any topic may be included such as:
Records should be maintained for all training sessions with descriptions of topics covered and names of workers trained. When students learn how to perform safe procedures, be sure to formally certify them as competent and qualified in writing.
The Texas Department of Insurance Division of Workers' Compensation Workplace Safety has a seven-step classroom training development process that can be quite effective in conducting classroom training for oil and gas companies. Let's take a look at these seven steps.
Training does not solve all problems. Sometimes the problem may be work procedures, equipment, or lack of employee motivation. Ask yourself:
"Does the employee have the skills or knowledge to perform the job?"
Click on the button to see the condition in which employees should receive safety training.
Safety training should occur if an employee:
Once you have determined that training is needed, the next step is to determine the training needed to get the employee competent and qualified to perform a task or job correctly and safely. Some questions to help identify training needs are:
Once these questions have been answered, you can look at additional information to help identify specific training that needs to be done.
Click on the button to see the various records and reports that should be reviewed to help determine the training needed.
Documents to review include the following:
After determining training needs, it is time to identify your goals and write objectives. When developing your learning goals and objectives, you should be able to describe what you expect employees to know and be able to perform tasks and improve performance.
Goals. Learning goals are merely statements describing a general end-state result such as:
Objectives. Effective learning objectives describe outcomes in terms of specific, observable, and measurable behaviors. They should be based on an objective training needs analysis, not on conjecture or existing trainer guides. Objectives should specify the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that make performing a task possible. To make sure learning objectives are clear and concise, we encourage using the ABCS model that includes each of these four components: Audience, Behavior, Condition, and Standard.
Click on the button to see more information on each of the four components of the ABCS model for writing learning objectives.
Here are two examples of learning objectives for safety training:
As you can see, operational objectives are much more specific and detailed than mere safety goals.
Decide what types of activities you're going to use to train your employees. How are you going to get across to them the skills and knowledge they need? Different people require different types of training; some visual, some hands-on, etc. The most common and effective learning activities that ensure students gain adequate KSAs are step-by-step instructor demonstration followed by student practice. Examples include:
Prepare your training materials and aids after deciding on the learning activities. Arrange objectives and activities in the sequence that corresponds to the tasks actually performed on the job, and if possible, use hands-on demonstrations followed by practice. Employees will retain training information if it is related to their job tasks.
The actual training is crucial for the overall safety training process to be successful. Begin your training with a short review of the key training subjects and activities. After each objective is taught, draw a relationship between the employee's goals, interests, and experiences to the objective. Reinforce what the employee has learned by summarizing objectives and key points.
Make sure employees have an opportunity to participate in hands-on practice in a safe environment. After instruction and practice, the trainer should:
After training is completed, the supervisor should evaluate and certify in writing that the student is qualified to perform the learned task on the job.
After conducting the training and receiving feedback from students, it's time to evaluate the success of the trainer and the training. Safety training is successful only if workers learn from it, and gain adequate knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs).
Without evaluation, you will never know the degree to which the training was successful. When you develop the goals, learning objectives, and content of the training, don't forget to include a process to evaluate both the trainer and the training.
The training evaluation can be conducted using several methods, including:
Click on the button to see examples of survey question to ask that help to evaluate the training.
After asking the questions in the survey above, you may discover that one or more improvements can be made. If so, it's important to carefully develop and implement the change through effective change management principles.
By following a simple 4-step process, called the PDSA Cycle, small improvements can be continually in the training program, or any other program, no matter how large or small.
The PDSA Cycle uses a systematic series of steps to continually improve a product or process. The process is called a "cycle" because the steps are continually repeated. As the image to the right shows, the PDSA Cycle contains four primary steps. These four steps are repeated over and over as part of a never-ending cycle of continual improvement.
Let's see how we can apply these steps to develop a safe work procedure:
Safety training should be simple and straight-forward. The best place to conduct the training is where the task is actually going to be performed. Here is a seven-step OJT training process that helps to ensure new employees don't get hurt while being trained. Now I know that might sound funny, but it happens regularly.
In this first step, the trainer tells the learner what will be trained, discusses the learning objectives, and answers any questions the learner might have. The trainer discusses what will be expected in terms of learner knowledge and performance. The trainer emphasizes the importance of the safe procedure to the success of the production/service goals.
In this step the learner becomes familiar with each step in the procedure being taught. The trainer reviews the initial conditions for the procedure. Next, the trainer explains and demonstrates the procedure, carefully explaining each step as it is performed. The trainer also answers questions and continues to demonstrate and explain each step until he or she is convinced the learner understands what to do, when and why to do it, and how to do it.
This step helps to make sure the learner knows proper steps prior to actually performing them. The learner tells the trainer how to perform each step, and if the learner's instruction is correct, the trainer will perform the step. If the learner does not explain the step correctly, the trainer will not perform the step, and let the learner know why.
This step is an optional precaution that may be used when exposure to hazards inherent in the procedure could cause an injury. The learner explains the step, gets permission to perform the step and then performs the step. This step is very important when training tasks that might result in serious physical injury or death if not performed correctly.
In this step the trainer basically says, "Good job!" and reemphasizes the importance of the procedure and how it fits into the overall process. The trainer will also tie the training again to accountability by discussing the natural and system consequences of performance.
For safety training in which procedures are taught, the training documentation should be more than an attendance sheet. It's important that the trainer verifies in writing that the student has demonstrated adequate knowledge and skills to perform the procedure safely. Here is a sample training certification.
At some point in time after the conclusion of the OJT session, the learner's supervisor should observe and question the employee to validate that the training has been successful.
You can learn more about how to conduct a JHA in OSHAcademy Course 706.
Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines (OSHA's Training Requirements Guide) -Here's a great booklet that covers many OSHA training requirements and also gives you some ideas on training strategies.
Safety and health work observations should be performed periodically by supervisors or designated observers. Observations may be conducted randomly in an informal manner, or they may be planned when a formal observations program, such as a Behavior Based Safety Program, is part of the SMS.
No matter what the strategy being used, safety and health work observations ensure:
Specific observations or audits are especially critical for lockout/tagout, confined space, fall protection and other programs where the risk of exposure to hazards is high. Results should be documented and follow-up training should be provided as needed. This process helps assure safety and health training is effective.
Click this link to see a sample training certification.