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Course 800 - Introduction to Construction Safety Management

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

CSMS and Worksite Analysis

worksite analysis
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Plan for Worksite Analysis

Worksite Analysis is a combination of systematic actions to provide you with the information you need to recognize and understand the hazards and potential hazards of your workplace.

When planning for a construction worksite analysis, be sure to conduct comprehensive worksite surveys to establish safety and health hazard inventories and update them periodically as changes occur. Analyze planned and new facilities, processes, materials, and equipment; and perform routine hazard analysis of jobs, processes and/or varied phases of work, as needed.

  1. a comprehensive baseline survey
  2. change analysis
  3. job hazard analyses (JHAs)
  4. periodic and daily safety inspections

Other important activities to perform when conducting worksite analysis include:

  • Employee reports of hazards, accidents, and near-misses.
  • Accident/incident investigations.
  • Injury and illness trend analysis

The Comprehensive Baseline Survey

A comprehensive baseline survey should include a review of previous accidents, injuries, and illnesses; complaints; previous studies; etc. Comprehensive surveys should be performed depending on the business size and nature of the hazards at least every three years by private consultants, insurance company, and/or state-funded programs.

The baseline survey should include a review of the following:

  1. copies of written inspections and surveys by: fire department, in-house as required by safety and health standards (e.g, overhead crane inspections, powered industrial truck daily inspection, etc.)
  2. employee report of hazards or potential hazards
  3. accident and incident investigations with corrective actions and follow-up
  4. injury and illness trend analysis
  5. personal protective equipment assessment
  6. ergonomic analysis
  7. specific identification of confined spaces
  8. identification of energy sources for specific machines

As part of the worksite analysis process, the employer/general contractor should also require subcontractors to perform a baseline analysis as necessary in accordance with OSHA and company requirements. The subcontractors should share pertinent information with the general contractor, and/or other subcontractors.

Change Analysis

As you know, change is continuous on a construction worksite. Change analysis is simply the management of that change, conducted by competent persons, to make sure it does not introduce new hazards or unsafe procedures in the work environment.

A designated person should analyze how changes on the worksite can affect equipment, processes, and materials for hazards and potential hazards. Findings should be documented and plans developed to minimize or design out the new hazards.

Changes in the following categories need to be reviewed:

  1. worksite layout
  2. materials
  3. process technology
  4. equipment

Change Analysis (Continued)

To more specifically analyze how changes worksite layout, materials, processes and equipment, affect the work being conducted, include the following examples in your analysis:

  1. worksite layout
    • emergency routes - worksite layout and process design
    • site entrance and traffic routes/surfaces- worksite layout
    • danger areas
    • working slopes for excavators, dump trucks etc.
    • storage and personnel areas
    • loading and unloading areas
    • barriers and fences
  2. contractor/subcontractors
    • site security
    • protection of pedestrians
    • safety signage
  3. tools, equipment, and materials
    • hazardous materials/dangerous goods
  4. process design and technology
    • housekeeping and cleanliness
    • covered walkways
    • protection from falling objects
    • bays and ramps

Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

A Job Hazard Analysis is a good technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards and unsafe practices before they cause injuries or illnesses. It focuses on the relationship among the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.

A JHA should be conducted for all hazardous jobs/procedures to determine potential hazards and identify methods to reduce exposure to those hazards at construction worksites. Here are the steps in a basic JHA:

  1. List the steps in the job or procedure.
  2. Describe the safety and health hazards in each step.
  3. Develop preventive measures.
  4. Write a safe job procedure.

Click here to see a sample JHA.

You can learn more about conducting a JHA in Course 706.

Safety Inspections and Reports

Safety inspections are the best understood and most frequently used tool to assess the workplace for hazards. The term "inspection" means a general walk-around examination of every part of the worksite to locate conditions that do not comply with safety standards. Safety inspection reports of potential hazards can be an effective tool to trigger a closer look at how work is being performed.

There are many positive reasons for conducting safety inspections, including:

  • helping ensure compliance with OSHA and meet other legal responsibility
  • involving both management and employees
  • identifying areas of high risk and controlling hazards
  • developing positive attitudes - demonstrating leadership
  • suggesting better methods of doing procedures safely

Slow Down and Look Around

Be careful you don't suffer from "tunnel vision" when conducting the safety inspection. When you have tunnel vision, you focus on identifying hazards, but miss unsafe work practices occurring around you. Since most accidents are primarily the result of unsafe behaviors, it makes sense to take the time needed to observe work being done as you conduct the inspection. You can read more about conducting effective safety inspections in Course 704, Hazard Analysis and Control.

OSHA Requirements

The following is a list of topics relevant to worksite analysis by identifying worksite hazards:

  • Evaluate operations, procedures, facilities, and equipment to identify hazards [29 CFR 1926.20(a), 29 CFR 1926.21(b)]
  • Monitor exposure levels [29 CFR 1926.55, 29 CFR 1926.62, 29 CFR 1926 Subpart Z, 29 CFR 1926.1101]
  • Ensure regular safety and health inspections [29 CFR 1926.20(b)(2), 29 CFR 1926.703(b), 29 CFR 1926.1081]
  • Conduct accident investigations [29 CFR 1904.4]
  • Determine if engineering or administrative controls or personnel protective equipment are to be used [29 CFR 1926.103, 29 CFR 1926.951]


Here's an interesting sample clip on job safety/hazard analysis from the DVD available at: Changent Systems


Before beginning this quiz, we highly recommend you review the module material. This quiz is designed to allow you to self-check your comprehension of the module content, but only focuses on key concepts and ideas.

Read each question carefully. Select the best answer, even if more than one answer seems possible. When done, click on the "Get Quiz Answers" button. If you do not answer all the questions, you will receive an error message.

Good luck!

1. When planning for a construction worksite analysis, be sure to conduct a/an _____.

2. All of the following should be included in a comprehensive baseline survey, except _____.

3. Which of the following analysis techniques include a review of worksite layout, materials being used, processes, and equipment?

4. All of the following should be reviewed to more specifically analyze how changes that affect safety occur on the worksite, except _____.

5. All of the following are good reasons to conduct daily safety inspections on the worksite, except _____.

Have a great day!

Important! You will receive an "error" message unless all questions are answered.