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Course 808: Focus Four - Struck-By Hazards

Safety guides and audits to make your job as a safety professional easier

Welcome!

Hi, and welcome to the course. If you are a safety manager, supervisor, committee member, or someone who is entering into the occupational safety and health field, this course will help you understand your important responsibilities.

Here's how it works (Read this... it's important!)

  1. Study each course module. Just click on the course "Modules" tab above to get started. It take about 30 minutes to one hour to complete each module, including the quiz.
  2. Complete each module quiz. Each quiz is 5-10 questions. When you submit the quiz, a new web page will load with instant feedback on your answers. After you complete the quiz, start on the next module. There is no need to wait! No hurry either. You are in control of the pace of learning.
  3. If you have questions as you study, just send us an email.

    Course 808 Certificate
    Frame not included.
  4. Order an Optional Certificate. If you want certification of your training, order a high quality certificate. Our training is free. We only charge a small fee to provide documentation of your training. If you are enrolled in one of our professional safety and health programs, you can save money by purchasing the program package that fits your needs. If you just want to purchase the certificate for this course, a link will be provided on your student dashboard after you pass the final exam. Just click on the "Purchase Certificate" Link.

    For individual courses, the PDF certificate is only $, the original certificate is $ (shipping extra), and the PDF & original certificate is $ (shipping extra).
  5. Complete and submit the final course exam.
    • The final exam consists of 10 questions.
    • To meet OSHA requirements, you must pass the final exam with at least a 70% score.
    • If you do not pass the exam, you may retake the exam.
    • If you pass the exam, you may not retake the exam just to raise your score.
    • Most final exam questions are derived from module quizzes.

OK, Let's go!

Have fun and study hard. To start, just click on "Introduction" above.

Focus Four - Struck-By Hazards

Introduction

Welcome to Focus Four – Struck-By Hazards for the construction industry. This is the third course covering the hazards described in our Construction Focus Four Hazards series. Please be sure to complete the series by also taking courses 806, 808, and 809. The Focus Four Hazards series was developed in support of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Construction Outreach Program’s effort to help educate workers in the construction industry about:

  • understanding the hazards they face; and
  • knowing what their employer’s responsibilities are to protect workers from workplace hazards.

Construction is among the most dangerous industries in the country and construction inspections comprise 60% of OSHA's total inspections.

  • In 2013, preliminary data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate that there were 796 fatal on-the-job injuries to construction workers – more than in any other single industry sector and nearly one out of every five work-related deaths in the U.S. that year.
  • Also in 2013, private industry construction workers had a fatal occupational injury rate nearly three times that of all workers in the United States: 9.4 per 100,000 full-time equivalent construction workers vs. 3.2 for all workers.

Given current OSHA and industry information regarding construction worksite illnesses, injuries and/or fatalities, students that complete this course will be able to recognize fall hazards, caught-in or-between hazards, struck-by hazards, and electrocution hazards (focus four hazards) employees face in the construction industry.

Students completing the four courses in the Focus Four Hazards series will be able to recognize fall hazards, caught-in or-between hazards, struck-by hazards, and electrocution hazards employees face in the construction industry.

Specifically, once students complete the Focus Four Hazards series they will be able to:

  • Identify common focus four hazards.
  • Describe types of focus four hazards.
  • Protect themselves from focus four hazards.
  • Recognize employer requirements to protect workers from focus four hazards.

Modules

To begin your training, click on the module links below. If you are just starting this course, you should begin with module one.

  1. What is a Struck-by Hazard?
  2. Protecting Yourself from Struck-by Hazards

Course 808 Final Exam

OSHAcademy course final exams are designed to help ensure students demonstrate a sufficient understanding of the content covered within each course. To help demonstrate this understanding, students must achieve a minimum score of 70% on final exams. It is OSHAcademy's policy to protect the integrity of our exams, as a result, we do not provide missed questions to students.

After you have studied all of the course material and taken the module quizzes, you can take the final exam. The module quizzes are optional, but we highly recommend you take each quiz, as the questions are similar to those on the final exam.

This is an open book exam. As you are taking the exam, if you find a question you are unsure of, you should use the course study guide or course web pages to research the correct answer. Don't worry, if you fail the exam, you can study and retake the exam when you are ready.

If you have already paid for a Certificate Program

If you have already paid for your certificates, your exam score will be displayed in your student dashboard. You will also be able to view or print the course PDF certificate if you purchased this option. Your PDF transcript will also be automatically updated to include the course.

If you only want free training

After each exam, you will automatically receive an email that will confirm you have taken the final exam and it will ask you to review your results on your training dashboard.  If you did not pass the final exam you will see a "retake exam" link next to the course.  We do not provide exam scores unless you purchase a course or program certificate. You are welcome to take all of our courses for free. We only charge a fee if you want certificates and transcripts to document your training.

Take the Final Exam

Take the Final Exam

Course 808 Study Guide. You can save this study guide to your computer for offline studying, or print the study guide if you prefer.

Glossary

Attendant: An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.

Audible signal: a signal made by a distinct sound or series of sounds. Examples include, but are not limited to, sounds made by a bell, horn, or whistle.

Authorized person: a person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the jobsite.

Barricade: an obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles.

Boom (equipment other than tower crane): an inclined spar, strut, or other long structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick. Typically, the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible, cantilevered type, latticed section, cable supported type or articulating type.

Boom (tower cranes): On tower cranes, if the "boom" (i.e., principal horizontal structure) is fixed, it is referred to as a jib; if it is moveable up and down, it is referred to as a boom.

Builder: the builder/constructor of equipment.

Competent person: one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Construction work: work for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating.

Controlling entity: an employer that is a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project--its planning, quality and completion.

Defect: any characteristic or condition which tends to weaken or reduce the strength of the tool, object, or structure of which it is a part.

Designated employee (designated person): An employee (or person) who is assigned by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this subpart and who has sufficient knowledge of the construction and operation of the equipment, and the hazards involved, to perform his or her duties safely.

Guarded: Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to minimize the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or inadvertent contact by persons or objects.

Headache ball: a weighted hook that is used to attach loads to the hoist load line of the crane.

Hoist: a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.

Hoisting: the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.

Hoisting equipment: commercially manufactured lifting equipment designed to lift and position a load of known weight to a location at some known elevation and horizontal distance from the equipment's center of rotation. "Hoisting equipment" includes but is not limited to cranes, derricks, tower cranes, barge-mounted derricks or cranes, gin poles and gantry hoist systems. A "come-a-long" (a mechanical device, usually consisting of a chain or cable attached at each end, that is used to facilitate movement of materials through leverage) is not considered "hoisting equipment."

Leading edge: the unprotected side and edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking or formwork sections are placed, formed or constructed.

Load: the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.

Multiple lift rigging: a rigging assembly manufactured by wire rope rigging suppliers that facilitates the attachment of up to five independent loads to the hoist rigging of a crane.

Operator: a person who is operating the equipment.

Procedures: instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Qualified person: a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Rated capacity: the maximum working load permitted by the manufacturer under specified working conditions. Such working conditions typically include a specific combination of factors such as equipment configuration, radii, boom length, and other parameters of use.

Signs: the warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently affixed or placed, at locations where hazards exist.

Signals: moving signs, provided by workers, such as flaggers, or by devices, such as flashing lights, to warn of possible or existing hazards.

Tags: temporary signs, usually attached to a piece of equipment or part of a structure, to warn of existing or immediate hazards.

Unprotected sides and edges: any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface, for example a, floor, roof, ramp or runway, where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1.0 m) high.

Source for definitions: 29 CFR 1926, i.e. OSHA’s definitions for terms in the construction industry

Endnotes

  1. OSHA Training Institute. (2011). Construction Focus Four: Caught-In or –Between Hazards. Instructor Guide. Retrieved from: https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/