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Course 807: Focus Four - Caught-In or -Between Hazards

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  5. Complete and submit the final course exam.
    • The final exam consists of 10 questions.
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Focus Four - Fall Hazards

Introduction

Welcome to Focus Four-Caught-In or-Between Hazards for the construction industry. This is the second course covering the hazards described in our Construction Focus Four Hazards series. Please be sure to complete the series by also taking courses 806, 808, and 809. The Construction Focus Four course was developed in support of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Construction Outreach Program’s effort to help educate workers in the construction industry about:

  • understanding the hazards they face; and
  • knowing what their employer’s responsibilities are to protect workers from workplace hazards.

Construction is among the most dangerous industries in the country and construction inspections comprise 60% of OSHA's total inspections. In 2013, preliminary data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicate that there were 796 fatal on-the-job injuries to construction workers – more than in any other single industry sector and nearly one out of every five work-related deaths in the U.S. that year. Also in 2013, private industry construction workers had a fatal occupational injury rate nearly three times that of all workers in the United States: 9.4 per 100,000 full-time equivalent construction workers vs. 3.2 for all workers.

Given current OSHA and industry information regarding construction worksite illnesses, injuries and/or fatalities, students who complete this series of courses will be able to recognize fall hazards, caught-in or -between hazards, struck-by hazards, and electrocution hazards (focus four hazards) employees face in the construction industry.

Students completing the four courses in the Focus Four Hazards series will be able to recognize fall hazards, caught-in or-between hazards, struck-by hazards, and electrocution hazards employees face in the construction industry.

Specifically, once students complete the Focus Four Hazards series they will be able to:

  • Identify common focus four hazards.
  • Describe types of focus four hazards.
  • Protect themselves from focus four hazards.
  • Recognize employer requirements to protect workers from focus four hazards.

Modules

To begin your training, click on the module links below. If you are just starting this course, you should begin with module one.

  1. What are Caught-In or-Between Hazards?
  2. Protecting Yourself from Caught-in or–Between Hazards

Course 807 Final Exam

OSHAcademy course final exams are designed to help ensure students demonstrate a sufficient understanding of the content covered within each course. To help demonstrate this understanding, students must achieve a minimum score of 70% on final exams. It is OSHAcademy's policy to protect the integrity of our exams, as a result, we do not provide missed questions to students.

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Take the Final Exam

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Course 807 Study Guide. You can save this study guide to your computer for offline studying, or print the study guide if you prefer.

Glossary

Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring: a pre-engineered shoring system comprised of aluminum hydraulic cylinders (cross braces) used in conjunction with vertical rails (uprights) or horizontal rails (wales). Such system is designed specifically to support the sidewalls of an excavation and prevent cave-ins.

Barricade: an obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles.

Boom (equipment other than tower crane): an inclined spar, strut, or other long structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick. Typically, the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible, cantilevered type, latticed section, cable supported type or articulating type.

Barricade: an obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles.

Boom (equipment other than tower crane): an inclined spar, strut, or other long structural member which supports the upper hoisting tackle on a crane or derrick. Typically, the length and vertical angle of the boom can be varied to achieve increased height or height and reach when lifting loads. Booms can usually be grouped into general categories of hydraulically extendible, cantilevered type, latticed section, cable supported type or articulating type.

Cave-in: the separation of a mass of soil or rock material from the side of an excavation, or the loss of soil from under a trench shield or support system, and its sudden movement into the excavation, either by falling or sliding, in sufficient quantity so that it could entrap, bury, or otherwise injure and immobilize a person.

Competent person: one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Defect: any characteristic or condition which tends to weaken or reduce the strength of the tool, object, or structure of which it is a part.

Equivalent: alternative designs, materials or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

Excavation: any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface, formed by earth removal.

Hazardous atmosphere: an atmosphere which by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, oxygen deficient, toxic, or otherwise harmful, may cause death, illness, or injury.

Load: refers to the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.

Operator: a person who is operating the equipment.

Pressure: a force acting on a unit area. Usually shown as pounds per square inch. (p.s.i.)

Protective system: means a method of protecting employees from cave-ins, from material that could fall or roll from an excavation face or into an excavation, or from the collapse of adjacent structures. Protective systems include support systems, sloping and benching systems, shield systems, and other systems that provide the necessary protection.

Qualified: one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Ramp: an inclined walking or working surface that is used to gain access to one point from another, and is constructed from earth or from structural materials such as steel or wood.

Rated capacity: the maximum working load permitted by the manufacturer under specified working conditions. Such working conditions typically include a specific combination of factors such as equipment configuration, radii, boom length, and other parameters of use.

Registered Professional Engineer: a person who is registered as a professional engineer in the state where the work is to be performed. However, a professional engineer, registered in any state is deemed to be a "registered professional engineer" within the meaning of this standard when approving designs for "manufactured protective systems" or "tabulated data" to be used in interstate commerce.

Scaffold: any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and it’s supporting structure (including points of anchorage), used for supporting employees or materials or both.

Shield (Shield system): a structure that is able to withstand the forces imposed on it by a cave-in and thereby protect employees within the structure. Shields can be permanent structures or can be designed to be portable and moved along as work progresses. Additionally, shields can be either premanufactured or job-built in accordance with 1926.652(c)(3) or (c)(4). Shields used in trenches are usually referred to as "trench boxes" or "trench shields."

Shoring (Shoring system): a structure such as a metal hydraulic, mechanical or timber shoring system that supports the sides of an excavation and which is designed to prevent cave-ins.

Signs: the warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently affixed or placed, at locations where hazards exist.

Signals: moving signs, provided by workers, such as flaggers, or by devices, such as flashing lights, to warn of possible or existing hazards.

Sloping (Sloping system): a method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating to form sides of an excavation that are inclined away from the excavation so as to prevent cave-ins. The angle of incline required to prevent a cave-in varies with differences in such factors as the soil type, environmental conditions of exposure, and application of surcharge loads.

Spoil: The dirt, rocks, and other materials removed from an excavation and either temporarily or permanently put aside.

Tags: temporary signs, usually attached to a piece of equipment or part of a structure, to warn of existing or immediate hazards.

Trench (Trench excavation): a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) is not greater than 15 feet (4.6 m). If forms or other structures are installed or constructed in an excavation so as to reduce the dimension measured from the forms or structure to the side of the excavation to 15 feet (4.6 m) or less (measured at the bottom of the excavation), the excavation is also considered to be a trench.

Source for definitions: 29 CFR 1926, i.e. OSHA’s definitions for terms in the construction industry

End Notes

  1. OSHA Training Institute. (2011). Construction Focus Four: Caught-In or –Between Hazards. Instructor Guide. Retrieved from: https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/
    • OSHA Website
    • BLS Website
    • CDC/NIOSH Website
    • The Construction Chart Book (CPWR, 2007)
    • Central New York COSH, 2007, Construction Safety & Health Fall Hazards Grantee
    • module, Grant Number SH-16586-07-06-F-36 from OSHA
    • CDC/NIOSH in partnership with CPWR-The Center for Construction Research and Training, Hollywood, Health and Society, and the Spanish-language network